Food is the substances that living things must consume by eating in order to survive. Food consumed at a particular meal is called food . Foods can be produced from organic or inorganic materials. The nutrients such as proteins , vitamins , minerals that are necessary for the survival and growth of living things in foods are called nutrients or food . However, the word food is also used to mean ” all foods and beverages consumed to sustain life, except for medicines. ”
Foods usually consist of a mixture of carbohydrates , fats , water and / or proteins . These substances, which contain nutrients that are beneficial to health, are necessary for the development of the organism. The foods in question are; vegetable , animal sources or other categories such as mushrooms or fermented foods such as alcohol . Although many societies used to provide their food by hunting and gathering , people nowadays use food, farming , large livestock and fishing.with hunting . Foodstuffs vary from society to society in terms of variety and composition. So much so that it can vary locally within the same community.
Throughout history, people have provided food needs by hunting animals , fishing , planting , collecting seeds , fruits and vegetables .
Over the centuries, many agricultural tools and techniques have been discovered and developed. Irrigation and selective production (working on a particular plant) are just two of the innovations that enable people to increase the quality and quantity of their food.
Since the nineteenth century, foods have been known to contain three types of molecular groups: carbohydrates , fats and proteins .
Some substances that enter the structure of human and animal tissues and must be present in the diet are as follows: Some amino acids (such as arginine, histidine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine), fatty acids such as arachidonic acid and linoleic acid , sugars , vitamins , minerals ( calcium , chlorine , cobalt) , copper , iron , fluorine , iodine etc.) and water .
The vegetable tissues are usually rich in carbohydrates, whereas animal tissues are rich in proteins and partly in fats. An apple contains 15% carbohydrate, 0.8% protein, 0.4% fat, 0.4% mineral and 83.4% water. In contrast, a piece of lean meat has no carbohydrates. However, 19% protein, 14% fat, 1% mineral and 66% water.
It is an important food source after cereals. Soybeans , other bean varieties, red beans , peas , okra are in this group. The soybean oil, which is very rich in protein, can also be utilized.
Sugar is a small molecule carbohydrate and is found in many plants. However, sugar beet and sugar cane are used to obtain sugar. Sugarcane grows in tropical and semi-tropical climates and contains 7-20% sugar. Sugar beet grows in temperate climates and contains 17% sugar on average.
Fruits and nuts
Some of the fruits grow on trees ( apples , pears , cherries , cherries , peaches , plums and many others). Some of the fruit grows directly on the soil ( melon , watermelon and strawberry ).
In terms of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals; nuts ( peanuts , hazelnuts , walnuts , almonds ) are rich in fat and protein.
Foods of animal origin
The most important of these are meat , milk and eggs and valuable foods that contain high levels of protein. Cattle and small ruminants , fish , poultry and game animals are the sources of meat .
Milk and its products, which have an important place in nutrition, contain protein , fat , carbohydrate , calcium , phosphorus , potassium , sodium and vitamins .
The only insect product people eat is calf . Honey is the most important source of carbohydrates and is known to heal many troubles.
The red meat (jağ) is consumed intensively as a rotating meat.
New food sources
The rapid growth of the world’s population, the spread of nutritional disorders in many parts of the world, has led scientists to work on synthetic proteins and other nutrients.
They were developed from various plant and animal sources. There are two steps in making protein concentrate. First, protein, fat and pigments are taken from the plant material . In the second step, fat and pigments are separated from proteins.
Microorganisms may also be important in the production of protein concentrates. Brewer ‘s yeast has long been known as a good source of protein. Scientists have made many ways to produce proteins on the basis of petroleum hydrocarbons and industrial residues.
Synthetic protein sources
In the production of a specific protein structure soya beans or from other oilseeds rich protein, alkaline (basic) is separated by liquid and result becomes a liquid containing 95-98% protein. This concentration of protein is then extracted into water to make fibers with a thickness of 1-30 microns. Then the protein fibers are combined with oil, the necessary nutrients, vitamins are added. The finished product may resemble chicken, fish, beef, fruit or other food. It doesn’t contain bones and the like.
Food festivals are held every year at the same time, with the main theme being food or a local product. Looking at the thousands of years of food festivals, the main purpose is to celebrate and give thanks to the fertile harvest time, the autumn equinox and the mother earth.
* Maine Lobster Festival, Rockland
At the Maine Lobster Festival, one of the world’s largest seafood festivals, almost all the seafood restaurants of the country appear and nearly 1000 volunteers work. The festival, which has been organized since 1948 and lasts for 3 days, is visited by thousands of people and on the last day of the festival, the team making the biggest lobster is awarded.
* Food and Wine Festival, Hawaii
More than 50 winemakers, gourmet and culinary professionals attend the festival, which is held every year in September. Tickets are sold separately for each day at the festival.
* Watermelon Festival, Hampton
Watermelons are awarded in the ağır heaviest ”, sulu most juicy” and “redest de categories at the Watermelon Festival held in Hampton, USA in July each year. Not only watermelons are awarded at the festival; watermelon beauties are also selected at the festival.
* Yuma Lettuce Days, Yuma, Arizona
Every year, the festival takes place between January 23-25 and the participants play bowling with lettuce, a cooking race is organized and the team that makes the world’s largest salad is awarded. Lettuce is an almost sacred food for Yuma, which supplies 90% of North American winter vegetable production.
* Waikiki Canned Ham Festival, Hawaii
The food is delivered to the Hawaii Food Bank, Hawaii’s largest non-profit organization and distributed to the homeless. Dancing around the streets during the day. and Miss Canned and Hula dancers breathe the festive atmosphere, while Hawaii’s best chefs prepare new recipes with canned pork ham.
* Bull Billuru Eating Festival, Clinton, Montana
The festival is held every year from July 29th to August 2nd, and it is tried to be tested among the fried, spicy or marinated bull crystals.
* Gilroy Garlic Festival, California
More than 100,000 people attend the festival, held in Gilroy, the home of garlic from July 24 to 26, and 2.5 tons of garlic are produced each year. The festival, where garlic is used even in ice cream and beverages, attracts great attention.
* Harvard Milk Days, Harvard, Illinois
Harvard’s Süt Milk Center of the World 72 has been celebrated for 72 years. The festival, which is held in July, also includes entertaining events and competitions such as içme drinking milk ”,“ bed racing ”and“ cattle show ”. (8) Australia
* Sydney International Food Festival
World famous chefs and kitchens participate in the festival, which is held for a few days, not like other festivals, all October and enjoy life in an extremely light and colorful environment. (9) United Kingdom
* Garlic Festival: Isle of Wight
The glamorous view of the Isle of Wight and its enchanting atmosphere, combined with garlic stands, create a dizzying atmosphere and support 65 charities. The 2-day festival offers the possibility to taste all kinds of garlic dishes.
* Taste of London Festival, London
The festival, where all international cuisine can be eaten by having a picnic on the lawn, is held every year in Regent Park in June. Many factors, such as competitions where champions are tested, different cultures’ own local dance performances and tourist participation, make the festival as enjoyable as it is.
* Olney Pancake Race, Olney
On February 14, women dressed in traditional housewives’ clothes take a 350-meter run with a frying pancake pan. In this competition, which has been held since 1445, there is a condition that the person who finishes the race with the first place and throws pancake upside down in the final. Ireland
* Oyster Festival, Galway
The Oyster Festival, one of the oldest festivals in the world, was first held in 1954. It is an intellectual-high-level event where many subjects from poetry to economy are discussed and concerts are held rather than a festival where only oysters and seafood are introduced and eaten. The four-day British Sunday Sunday newspaper is among the world’s top 12 festivals, and the oyster beauty is also selected. Spain
* Tomato Festival, Valencia
Organized for the first time in 1940 to consume surplus tomatoes, the festival has turned into a crazy pastime for years. Throwing tons of tomatoes distributed to each other on the streets of the city, people can create the appearance of a crimson city in a few hours.
* Carnival at Vilanova i La Geltrú, Vilanova i La Geltrú
All bakeries distribute free tarts to children on the 17th of February each year. Without consuming an average of 90,000 kg of sugar per day, the streets are undoubtedly one of the sweetest memories of children.
* Italy Truffle Festival, Alba
The festival, held in Alba, in the Piedmont region, in the northwest of Italy, is a festival where rare truffle mushrooms are eaten with a thousand different recipes. The festival is organized with the invitation of 83 times.
* Ivrea Orange Festival, Ivrea
The festival, which was held between 25-28 February, dates back to the 12th century. The oranges that young girls who watched the parades from the balcony at that time were thrown from their windows to attract the attention of the boys, today has become the festival of orange war.
* Festa del Riso, Villimpenta
The festival, held on the last Sunday of May, serves pilots instead of risotto, the famous dish of Italian cuisine. The aim is to celebrate rice cultivation time.
* Eurochocolate, Perugia
The festival, which lasts for 8 days, is one of the biggest festivals in the country with more than 1 million participants. A festival that makes Italy much sweeter in October. Mexican
* Red Radish Festival, Oaxaca
Every year, on December 23-24, the festival turns red radishes into impressive sculptures. The origin of the festival, which dates back to the 16th century, is that the Spanish monks brought in red radishes to introduce them to the colonies, and since nobody wanted to eat red radishes, they sculpted radishes and made them interesting. Since 1987, the festival has become a tradition.
* Singapore Flavor Festival
Taste Festival, also known as World Gourmet Summit, takes place with the participation of 16 award-winning chefs, the world’s top 100 restaurants and Michelin starred restaurants. The festival is a very prestigious event with different sections such as Salon Gourmet Hall ”,“ Gurme Village ”and“ Gurme Pazarı İçinde. New Zeland
* Hokitika Wildlife Food Festival
The festival is celebrated throughout the country and includes dishes made from wildlife such as “Magpie pie” and “Mountain Oyster”.